Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland

Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland
Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland

Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland for the Polish market. High quality & low price and long service life. AC and DC electric motor producer. Free Consultation

Our single-phase motors are manufactured in 230 Volt rated voltage and 50 Hz frequency. Our three-phase motors are manufactured in 400 Volt rated voltage and 50 Hz frequency. Manufacturing can be done based on
480V-660 V and 50-60Hz frequency upon special request. ±5% changes in rated voltage and ±2% changes in rated frequency do not cause significant changes in motor power.

The temperature value of the motors continuously operating in lower and upper limit values of permissible voltage values can exceed maximum temperature increase value by 10 K. We can see the effects of ±10% change in rated voltage and ±5% change in rated frequency over motor’s electrical frequency in Table 12.

Magnetic flux density decreases when the frequency increases without a change in the voltage. The magnetic flux density increases when the frequency increases. The motor reaches saturation when the magnetic flux increases. The motor’s rotational torque is proportional with the square of motor magnetic flux density. Motor power is the multiplication of rotation speed and torque. Thus, motor power changes with speed and torque value.

Motors are manufactured appropriate to their rated voltage and rated frequency. EMS Electric manufactures motors with different voltage and frequency values by special order.

Motors manufactured according to 50 Hz rated frequency can practically be used at 60 Hz Frequency. However, increase in frequency causes change in speed and torque. When the motor voltage changes with frequency, then the motor power changes as well. Motors manufactured to operate at rated frequency of 50Hz can be used in 60Hz. The working conditions are shown in Table 13

Electric Motor Manufacturer

Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland
Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland

Classification of Bearings: Bearings are separated into two groups according to their rolling elements: ball bearings and roller bearings. Bearings are also separated as axial bearings and radial bearings
based on the carried load. Ball bearings are generally used in small types of electrical motors and these bearings carry load in a radial direction.

Bearing Space: When one of the internal or external rings of a bearing is
fixed, the other ring moves in a radial or axial direction. Bearing spaces are considered in radial and axial direction. Bearings should be embedded to their houses as carefully as possible. Radial space in used bearings is permitted in certain limits. Several criteria are considered for obtaining these working conditions.

Different thermal expansions in bearing rings and connected parts cause crick-in bearing. A close fit decreases bearing space. Generally, the working space is smaller than the bearing space. Space of uninstalled bearing should be selected according to different working conditions and application tolerances. Therefore, there are smaller and greater spaced bearings in addition to normal spaced bearings. In electrical motor production, manufacturers can limit bearing radial spaces according to shaft dimensional tolerances. The aim is to increase longevity and maximize efficiency.

Bearing Fitting and House Sensitivity: When bearing housing and shaft are designed, it should be provided that bearing should fit on shaft and house
with enough closeness. Generally, bearing’s internal and external rings do not rotate at the same time. Principally, the ring which rotates should fit closely to house and the ring, which does not rotate should there be space. For an electrical motor, rotor shaft should fit closely with bearing ring. Ratio of this closeness is limited with bearing space. This aspect should be considered in bearing changes if an extra operation is performed in shaft.

Bearing Lubrication: Lubrication should be used to prevent direct contact
between balls and rolling paths and to prevent abrasion in surfaces for reliable operation of bearings. Greases, liquid or solid lubricants can be used for bearing lubrication. Lubrication reduces friction, therefore preventing abrasion and corrosion. Lubricants can also help with cooling and impermeability. Generally lubricants in electrical motors are greases.

Bearing Mounting/Dismounting and Maintenance: Parts should be measured before mounting of bearing begins. The main principal in measurement is that part and measurement device should be the same temperature. Micrometer is used for measurement of shaft’s internal
and external radius and hole micrometer should be used for measurement of hole diameters.

Electric Motor Manufacturer Characteristics

A diameter should be normally measured at least in two sections and more than one plane. Mounting environment should be very clean and smooth. After acquiring necessary measurement devices, tools are brought to mounting area; mounting order is determined and then bearing is taken from its package. If possible the bearings are held with gloves instead of bare hands– corrosion, which may be caused by sweat, can be prevented.

Bearing Mounting:
Major aspects to be considered in bearing mounting:

  • Never hit bearing with a hammer. Use press and mounting apparatus if possible.
  • Ring which will fit with close fit is mounted first. Mounting force is always applied through mounted ring. Thus, if internal ring is mounted over shaft, force is applied from the side of internal ring.
  • Necessary radial and axial space should be controlled after mounting is completed.

If the mounting is performed according to instructions, bearing should run silently and normally. For example, irregular, scrabble-like sounds and vibrations mean that there is dirt in the bearing. More tough and boom-like
sound is evidence that there is deficiency in rolling paths and bearing elements. Regular metallic and shrill sounds mean that there is not enough grease or lubricants in rolling paths.

Operating bearings without lubricant can cause breakdowns in a short time. If bearing’s temperature rises in a very short time period, this will mean there is a fault in the mounting and lubrication system. Therefore, it should immediately be dismounted and controlled. Mounting methods are divided into mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal according to how much force is needed to be applied.

Mechanical mounting is generally applied in bearings having a hole diameter less than 100 mm. If mechanical force is applied by hammer, bearing should be hit with bushing (which is prepared by soft alloy or a support). Bushing or support should contact with rings only and with the
cage or bearing elements.

Hole and external diameter of bushing should be processed such that it is slightly smaller than wall thickness of bearing ring where mounting force is transmitted. Ring flank face should be pushed up so it stands to shaft rabbet or an intermediate part while bearing is mounted. Ring which is made with closed fit should be fixed against axial standing.

Bearing Dismounting: You should work carefully and with appropriate tools while dismounting the bearing. The bearing should not be hit with
a hammer when it is mounted. Generally, the dismounting process requires more force than the mounting process. Yet, force should not be applied through the cage or bearing components in the process of dismounting.

Bearing Cleaning: Polluted bearings or bearings that are dismounted after
usage for maintenance should be cleaned carefully by gas oil and brush and should be washed and cleaned in at least two separate baths: one for washing and one for cleaning. For controlling the result of this cleaning process, the bearing has to be oiled with thin oil and rotated by hand. There should not be any irregular noise or roughness. Cleaned bearing should be lubricated with suitable grease or oil. Bearings should be packaged to prevent dust and dirt.

Closed bearings are checked and if they are not suitable for usage they have to be disposed. Suitable ones are cleaned and packaged.

Electric Motor Manufacturer in Poland

Electric motors are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. They play a crucial role in various applications and are widely used in industries, transportation, household appliances, and more. Here are some key points about electric motors:

  1. Basic Principle: Electric motors operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction, discovered by Michael Faraday. When an electric current flows through a coil placed in a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the coil, causing it to rotate. This rotation is then used to perform mechanical work.
  2. Components:
    • Stator: The stationary part of the motor that produces a magnetic field.
    • Rotor (Armature): The rotating part of the motor, usually a coil or a set of coils, which experiences the magnetic field and rotates.
  3. Types of Electric Motors:
    • DC Motors: Direct current motors operate on a constant voltage and are commonly used in applications where precise speed control is required.
    • AC Motors: Alternating current motors are more common and come in various types, including:
      • Induction Motors: Widely used in household appliances and industrial applications.
      • Synchronous Motors: Maintain synchrony with the frequency of the applied AC voltage.
      • Brushless DC Motors: Similar to traditional DC motors but use electronic controllers instead of brushes for commutation.
  4. Applications:
    • Industrial Applications: Electric motors power machinery, pumps, fans, compressors, and various manufacturing processes.
    • Transportation: Electric motors are used in electric vehicles (EVs), trains, and other forms of electric transportation.
    • Household Appliances: They power everything from kitchen appliances like blenders and mixers to HVAC systems and vacuum cleaners.
    • Renewable Energy: Electric motors are used in wind turbines and hydropower generators to convert rotational energy into electricity.
  5. Efficiency and Sustainability: Electric motors are generally more energy-efficient than traditional internal combustion engines, making them a key component in the transition to more sustainable and environmentally friendly technologies.
  6. Control Systems: Advanced control systems, such as variable frequency drives (VFDs) and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are often used with electric motors to regulate speed, torque, and direction.
  7. Maintenance: Electric motors require maintenance to ensure optimal performance. This includes lubrication, checking for worn-out parts, and monitoring electrical components.

The choice of the type of electric motor depends on the specific application’s requirements, such as power output, speed, and efficiency. Advances in motor technology continue to contribute to increased efficiency, reduced environmental impact, and broader applications for electric motors.

Basic Principle

The basic principle behind the operation of electric motors is electromagnetic induction, a phenomenon discovered by Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that a change in magnetic field within a closed loop of wire induces an electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the wire. This principle is fundamental to the operation of electric motors.

Here’s a simplified explanation of the basic principle:

  1. Magnetic Field: An electric motor consists of a stationary part called the stator, which produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field can be created by a permanent magnet or by passing an electric current through coils of wire.
  2. Moving Coil (Armature or Rotor): Inside the magnetic field, there is a moving part called the rotor or armature. The rotor typically consists of a coil of wire or a set of coils.
  3. Electrical Current: When an electric current is passed through the coil in the rotor, it generates its own magnetic field. This magnetic field interacts with the magnetic field produced by the stator.
  4. Force and Rotation: According to the laws of electromagnetism, when a current-carrying conductor (the coil in the rotor) is placed in a magnetic field, a force is exerted on it. This force causes the rotor to rotate.
  5. Continuous Rotation: The rotation of the rotor continues as long as there is a flow of electric current through the coil and the magnetic field is present. The direction of rotation can be reversed by reversing the direction of the current.

In summary, the basic principle of electric motors involves the interaction of magnetic fields and electric currents, resulting in the generation of mechanical motion. This principle is fundamental to various types of electric motors, including DC motors and AC motors, and it forms the basis for the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work.

Components of an Electric Motor

Components of an Electric Motor
Components of an Electric Motor

Electric motors consist of several key components that work together to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion. The specific components may vary depending on the type of motor, but the fundamental parts are common to many motor designs. Here are the main components of an electric motor:

  1. Stator:
    • The stator is the stationary part of the motor.
    • It typically consists of a core made of laminated iron or steel sheets to minimize eddy current losses.
    • Coils or windings are wound around the stator to produce a magnetic field when an electric current flows through them.
    • In AC motors, the stator windings are connected to the power supply, creating a rotating magnetic field.
  2. Rotor (Armature):
    • The rotor is the rotating part of the motor.
    • It is usually located inside the stator.
    • In DC motors, the rotor typically consists of a coil or coils of wire mounted on a shaft.
    • In AC motors, the rotor can take different forms, such as a squirrel-cage rotor in induction motors or a wound rotor in some types of synchronous motors.
  3. Coil or Windings:
    • Coils or windings are conductive wires wound around the stator and/or rotor.
    • When an electric current flows through these coils, they generate a magnetic field.
    • The interaction between the magnetic fields of the stator and rotor is what produces the mechanical motion.
  4. Communator (in DC Motors) or Slip Rings (in Some AC Motors):
    • In DC motors, the commutator is a rotary switch that reverses the direction of the current in the rotor windings, ensuring a continuous rotation.
    • In some AC motors, slip rings are used instead of a commutator to transfer electrical power to the rotor.
  5. Bearings:
    • Bearings support the rotor and allow it to rotate smoothly within the stator.
    • They reduce friction and wear between moving parts.
  6. Brushes (in Some DC Motors):
    • In DC motors with a commutator, brushes are used to maintain electrical contact with the rotating commutator.
    • The brushes carry current to the rotor windings, allowing the motor to continue rotating.
  7. Housing or Frame:
    • The housing or frame encloses and protects the internal components of the motor.
    • It provides structural support and helps dissipate heat generated during operation.
  8. Cooling Mechanism:
    • Many motors include a cooling mechanism, such as a fan, to dissipate heat generated during operation.
    • Efficient cooling is crucial for maintaining optimal motor performance and preventing overheating.

These components work together to enable the motor to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, serving various industrial, commercial, and residential applications. The specific design and arrangement of these components can vary depending on the type and purpose of the motor.

Types of Electric Motors

There are various types of electric motors, each designed for specific applications and operating on different principles. Here are some common types of electric motors:

  1. DC Motors:
    • Brushed DC Motors: These motors use brushes and a commutator to switch the direction of the current in the rotor windings, causing the rotor to rotate.
    • Brushless DC Motors (BLDC): Instead of brushes and a commutator, BLDC motors use electronic controllers to switch the direction of current in the stator windings. They are more efficient and have a longer lifespan compared to brushed DC motors.
  2. AC Motors:
    • Induction Motors:
      • Single-Phase Induction Motors: Commonly used in household appliances.
      • Three-Phase Induction Motors: Widely used in industrial applications due to their efficiency and reliability.
    • Synchronous Motors:
      • Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM): Use permanent magnets in the rotor, providing better efficiency and power factor.
      • Wound Rotor Synchronous Motors: Have windings on the rotor connected to external resistors, allowing for controlled torque.
  3. Linear Motors:
    • Instead of rotational motion, linear motors produce linear motion along a straight path.
    • Linear induction motors and linear synchronous motors are examples of linear motor types.
  4. Servo Motors:
    • Servo motors are designed for precise control of position, velocity, and acceleration.
    • They are often used in robotics, CNC machines, and other applications requiring high precision.
  5. Stepper Motors:
    • Stepper motors move in discrete steps, making them suitable for applications where precise positioning is essential.
    • They are commonly used in 3D printers, CNC machines, and various automation systems.
  6. Hollow Shaft Motors:
    • These motors have a central opening in the rotor, allowing for the passage of cables, fluids, or other mechanical components through the center of the motor.
  7. Hermetic Motors:
    • Sealed and designed to operate in environments where they are exposed to liquids or gases. Commonly used in refrigeration and air conditioning.
  8. Universal Motors:
    • These motors can run on both AC and DC power.
    • Commonly used in small household appliances like vacuum cleaners and power tools.
  9. Fractional Horsepower Motors:
    • Motors with a power rating less than one horsepower.
    • Widely used in applications where a small and economical motor is sufficient, such as fans and pumps.
  10. Gear Motors:
    • Combines an electric motor with a gearbox to provide increased torque and lower speed.
    • Used in applications where high torque is required, such as in automotive windshield wipers.

The choice of electric motor depends on factors such as the application requirements, power efficiency, size, speed, and cost considerations. Each type of motor has its advantages and disadvantages, making them suitable for specific tasks and industries.

DC Motors

DC motors, short for direct current motors, are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy through the interaction of magnetic fields. They operate on the principle of electromagnetism and find applications in various industries due to their simplicity and controllability. Here are some key aspects of DC motors:

Basic Structure:
  1. Stator: The stationary part of a DC motor, usually consisting of permanent magnets or electromagnets that create a magnetic field.
  2. Rotor: The rotating part of the motor, typically made up of a coil of wire or multiple coils (armature) wound around a core. The rotor is placed within the stator’s magnetic field.
  3. Commutator: Found in brushed DC motors, the commutator is a segmented metal ring that ensures the direction of current in the rotor windings changes as the rotor turns, allowing for continuous rotation.
  4. Brushes: In brushed DC motors, brushes are conductive components that maintain contact with the commutator, supplying electric current to the rotor windings.
Types of DC Motors:
  • Brushed DC Motors: These motors use brushes and a commutator for current reversal in the rotor windings. They are relatively simple but may require more maintenance due to the brushes.
  • Brushless DC Motors (BLDC): BLDC motors use electronic controllers instead of brushes and a commutator. They are more efficient, produce less noise, and require less maintenance compared to brushed DC motors.
Working Principle:
  1. When a direct current flows through the coils of the rotor, an electromagnetic field is generated around the rotor.
  2. The interaction between the magnetic fields of the stator and rotor causes a torque, resulting in the rotation of the rotor.
  3. In brushed DC motors, the commutator and brushes ensure that the direction of the current in the rotor windings changes as the rotor turns, maintaining the rotation.
  • Automotive: DC motors power various components in vehicles, such as power windows, windshield wipers, and seat adjustment mechanisms.
  • Industrial Machinery: They’re used in conveyors, pumps, compressors, and other equipment requiring variable speed control.
  • Household Appliances: Found in appliances like electric razors, mixers, and some types of fans.
  • Controllability: DC motors offer precise speed control and torque adjustments.
  • Simple Design: Particularly brushed DC motors have a relatively straightforward design, making them easy to understand and maintain.
  • Brush Wear: In brushed DC motors, the brushes can wear out over time, requiring periodic replacement and maintenance.
  • Electromagnetic Interference: In some cases, DC motors can produce electromagnetic interference that might affect nearby electronic devices.

DC motors remain a vital part of various industries despite the rise of other motor types, thanks to their simplicity, controllability, and suitability for specific applications.


Electric motors find applications in a wide range of industries and everyday devices due to their ability to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion efficiently. Here are some common applications of electric motors:

  1. Industrial Machinery:
    • Electric motors power various industrial machines, including conveyor systems, pumps, compressors, fans, and manufacturing equipment.
  2. Transportation:
    • Electric Vehicles (EVs): Electric motors drive the wheels in electric cars, buses, and bikes, contributing to the shift towards more sustainable transportation.
    • Trains and Light Rail: Electric motors are used in electric trains and light rail systems for propulsion.
  3. Household Appliances:
    • Electric motors are integral to many household appliances, such as washing machines, refrigerators, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, blenders, and electric fans.
  4. HVAC Systems:
    • Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems use electric motors in fans, compressors, and pumps to circulate air and control temperature.
  5. Pumps and Water Systems:
    • Electric motors power water pumps for domestic water supply, irrigation, and industrial processes.
  6. Power Tools:
    • Many power tools, including drills, saws, and grinders, are powered by electric motors for various applications.
  7. Renewable Energy:
    • Electric motors are used in renewable energy systems, such as wind turbines and hydropower generators, to convert rotational energy into electricity.
  8. Robotics:
    • Servo motors and stepper motors play a crucial role in robotics, providing precise control of movement in robotic arms, drones, and other automated systems.
  9. Aerospace:
    • Electric motors are used in various aircraft systems, including landing gear, pumps, and auxiliary power units.
  10. Medical Devices:
    • Electric motors are used in medical equipment such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and diagnostic devices.
  11. Consumer Electronics:
    • Electric motors are present in devices like electric toothbrushes, cameras, and computer hard drives.
  12. Elevators and Escalators:
    • Electric motors power the movement of elevators and escalators in buildings.
  13. Gaming and Entertainment:
    • Electric motors are used in gaming consoles, virtual reality devices, and amusement park rides.
  14. Automotive Systems:
    • Besides electric vehicles, electric motors are used in various automotive applications, including power windows, windshield wipers, and cooling fans.
  15. Oil and Gas Industry:
    • Electric motors are employed in pumps, compressors, and other equipment used in the extraction and processing of oil and gas.
  16. Mining:
    • Electric motors power equipment such as crushers, conveyors, and drills in the mining industry.

These examples highlight the versatility and widespread use of electric motors in modern society, contributing to increased efficiency, automation, and the transition to more sustainable energy sources.

AC Motors

AC motors, or alternating current motors, are devices that convert electrical energy from an alternating current power source into mechanical energy. These motors are widely used in various applications due to their reliability, efficiency, and adaptability to different power systems. Here are key aspects of AC motors:

Types of AC Motors:
  1. Induction Motors:
    • Single-Phase Induction Motors: Commonly used in residential applications and small industrial equipment.
    • Three-Phase Induction Motors: Widely used in industrial applications due to their efficiency, reliability, and ability to handle higher power loads.
  2. Synchronous Motors:
    • Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM): Use permanent magnets in the rotor, providing efficiency benefits.
    • Wound Rotor Synchronous Motors: Feature windings on the rotor connected to external resistors, allowing for controlled torque.
Basic Structure:
  1. Stator:
    • The stator contains coils or windings that are connected to the AC power supply.
    • When AC voltage is applied, it induces a rotating magnetic field in the stator.
  2. Rotor:
    • The rotor is placed inside the stator and can take different forms depending on the motor type.
    • In induction motors, the rotor is typically a squirrel-cage rotor consisting of conductive bars.
  3. Working Principle:
    • In induction motors, the rotating magnetic field in the stator induces a current in the rotor, creating a secondary magnetic field.
    • The interaction between the stator’s rotating magnetic field and the rotor’s magnetic field generates torque, causing the rotor to turn.
  1. Industrial Machinery:
    • AC induction motors are used in a wide range of industrial equipment, including pumps, fans, compressors, conveyors, and manufacturing machinery.
  2. HVAC Systems:
    • AC motors power the fans and compressors in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
  3. Electric Appliances:
    • Many household appliances, such as washing machines, refrigerators, and air conditioners, use AC motors.
  4. Power Tools:
    • AC motors are employed in various power tools, such as drills, saws, and grinders.
  5. Transportation:
    • AC motors are used in electric trains, trolleys, and some types of electric vehicles.
  6. Renewable Energy:
    • AC motors are integral components in wind turbines, converting wind energy into electrical power.
  1. Efficiency: AC motors are known for their high efficiency, especially in larger industrial applications.
  2. Low Maintenance: Induction motors, in particular, have fewer moving parts, resulting in lower maintenance requirements.
  1. Control Complexity: Compared to DC motors, AC motors can be more complex to control, especially in terms of speed regulation.
  2. Starting Torque: Induction motors may have lower starting torque compared to some DC motors, although this can be addressed with additional components.

AC motors are a cornerstone of modern industrial and commercial applications, providing reliable and efficient means of converting electrical energy into mechanical motion. The specific type of AC motor chosen depends on the requirements of the application.

Electric Motors

Electric motors are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. They are commonly used in a wide range of applications, from household appliances to industrial machinery, and are essential components in many modern technologies.

The basic principle behind an electric motor is simple. It consists of a magnetic field and a conductor. When a current is passed through the conductor, it experiences a force due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the electric charge. The direction of the force depends on the direction of the current and the orientation of the magnetic field.

There are two main types of electric motors: AC (alternating current) motors and DC (direct current) motors. AC motors are typically used in applications where constant speed is required, while DC motors are used in applications where variable speed is required.

AC motors operate by changing the direction of the current flowing through the windings of the motor, causing the magnetic field to rotate. This rotation creates a torque on the rotor, which causes it to turn. AC motors are typically used in household appliances, such as fans and refrigerators, as well as in industrial applications, such as pumps and compressors.

DC motors operate by applying a voltage to the motor, causing the current to flow through the windings of the motor. This creates a magnetic field, which interacts with the permanent magnets on the rotor, causing it to turn. DC motors are typically used in applications where variable speed is required, such as in electric vehicles and power tools.

Electric motors come in a wide range of sizes and power ratings, from small motors used in household appliances to large motors used in industrial machinery. They are also used in a variety of applications, including robotics, automation, and renewable energy systems.

In recent years, electric motors have become increasingly important due to their role in the transition to clean energy. Electric motors are used in electric vehicles, wind turbines, and solar panels, making them key components in the transition to a low-carbon economy. As technology continues to improve, electric motors are expected to become even more efficient and versatile, driving innovation and growth in a wide range of industries.

Electric Motors

Electric Motors
Electric Motors

An electric motor is a machine capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. The induction motor is the most widely used type of motor because it combines all the advantages offered by electrical energy such as low cost, ease of supply and distribution, clean handling, and simple controls – together with those of simple construction and its great versatility to be adapted to wide ranges of loads and improved efficiencies. The most common types of electric motors are:

  • Direct current motors: These motors are quite expensive requiring a direct current source or a converting device to convert normal alternating current into direct current. They are capable of operating with adjustable speeds over a wide range and are perfectly suited for accurate and flexible speed control. Therefore, their use is restricted to special applications where these requirements compensate for the much higher installation and maintenance costs.
  • Alternating current motors: These are the most frequently used motors because electrical power is normally supplied as alternating current. The most common types are:
    • Synchronous motors: synchronous motors are three-phase AC motors that run at a fixed speed, without slip, and are generally applied for large outputs (due to their relatively high costs in smaller frame sizes).
    • Induction motor: these motors generally run at a constant speed which changes slightly when mechanical loads are applied to the motor shaft. Due to its simplicity, robustness, and low cost, this type of motor is the most widely used and, in practical terms, is quite suitable for almost all types of machines. Currently, it is possible to control the speed of induction motors with frequency inverters.

Electric motors are so much a part of everyday life that we seldom give them a second thought. When we switch on an electric drill, for example, we confidently expect it to run rapidly up to the correct speed and we do not question how it knows what pace to run, or how it is that once enough energy has been drawn from the supply to bring it up to speed, the power drawn falls to a very low level.

When we put the drill to work it draws more power, and when we finish the power drawn from the mains reduces automatically, without intervention on our part.

The humble motor, consisting of nothing more than an arrangement
of copper coils and steel laminations, is rather a clever energy converter, which warrants serious consideration. By gaining a basic understanding of how the motor works, we will be able to appreciate its potential and its limitations, and (in later chapters) see how the addition of external electronic controls can further enhance its already remarkable performance.

Mechanism of Electric Motors

Mechanism of Electric Motors
Mechanism of Electric Motors

This chapter deals with the basic mechanisms of motor operation, so
readers familiar with magnetic Xux, magnetic and electric circuits, torque, and motional e.m.f can probably afford to skim over much of it. In the course of the discussion, however, several very important general principles and guidelines emerge.

Nearly all motors exploit the force which is exerted on a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic Weld. The force can be demonstrated by placing a bar magnet near a wire carrying current, but anyone trying the experiment will probably be disappointed to discover how feeble the force is, and will doubtless be left wondering how such an unpromising effect can be used to make effective motors.

We will see that in order to make the most of the mechanism, we need
to arrange a very strong magnetic Weld, and make it interact with many
conductors, each carrying as much current as possible. We will also see
later that although the magnetic Weld (or ‘excitation’) is essential to the
working of the motor, it acts only as a catalyst and all of the mechanical
output power comes from the electrical supply to the conductors on
which the force is developed.

Energy in Electric Motor Works

Energy in Electric Motors
Energy in Electric Motors

It will emerge later that in some motors the parts of the machine responsible for the excitation and the energy-converting functions are distinct and self-evident. In the d.c. motor, for example, the excitation is provided either by permanent magnets or by Weld coils wrapped around clearly defined projecting Weld poles on the stationary part, while the conductors on which force is developed are on the rotor and supplied with current via sliding brushes.

In many motors, however, there is no such clear-cut physical distinction between the ‘excitation’ and the ‘energy-converting’ parts of the machine, and a single stationary winding serves both purposes. Nevertheless, we will find that identifying and separating the excitation and energy-converting functions are always helpful in understanding how motors of all types operate.

Operation Principle of Electric Motors

A large percentage of AC motors are induction motors. This implies that there is no current supplied to the rotating coils (rotor windings). These coils are closed loops that have large currents induced in them. Three-phase currents flowing in the stator windings lead to establishing a rotating magnetic field in the air gap. This magnetic field continuously pulsates across the air gap and into the rotor. This is a single-phase representation of windings and current flow.

As magnetic flux cuts across the rotor bars, a voltage is induced in them, much as a voltage is induced in the secondary winding of a transformer. Because the rotor bars are part of a closed circuit (including the end rings), a current circulates in them. The rotor current in turn produces a
magnetic field that interacts with the magnetic field of the stator. Since this field is rotating and magnetically interlocked with the rotor, the rotor is dragged around with the stator field.

Wound Rotor Electric Motor Types

Wound-rotor motors — Although the squirrel-cage induction motor is relatively inflexible about speed and torque characteristics, a special wound-rotor version has controllable speed and torque. The application of wound-rotor motors is markedly different from squirrel-cage motors because of the accessibility of the rotor circuit. Various performance characteristics can be obtained by inserting different values of resistance in the rotor circuit.

Wound rotor motors are generally started with secondary resistance in the rotor circuit. This resistance is sequentially reduced to permit the motor to come up to speed. Thus the motor can develop substantial torque while limiting the locked rotor current.

The secondary resistance can be designed for continuous service to dissipate heat produced by continuous operation at reduced speed, frequent acceleration, or acceleration with a large inertia load. External resistance gives the motor a characteristic that results in a large drop in rpm for a fairly small change in load. Reduced speed is provided down to about 50%, rated speed, but efficiency is low.

EMS Power Machines

We design, manufacture and assembly Power Machines such as – diesel generators, electric motors, vibration motors, pumps, steam engines and steam turbines

EMS Power Machines is a global power engineering company, one of the five world leaders in the industry in terms of installed equipment. The companies included in the company have been operating in the energy market for more than 60 years.

EMS Power Machines manufactures steam turbines, gas turbines, hydroelectric turbines, generators, and other power equipment for thermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power plants, as well as for various industries, transport, and marine energy.

EMS Power Machines is a major player in the global power industry, and its equipment is used in power plants all over the world. The company has a strong track record of innovation, and it is constantly developing new and improved technologies.

Here are some examples of Power Machines’ products and services:

  • Steam turbines for thermal and nuclear power plants
  • Gas turbines for combined cycle power plants and industrial applications
  • Hydroelectric turbines for hydroelectric power plants
  • Generators for all types of power plants
  • Boilers for thermal power plants
  • Condensers for thermal power plants
  • Reheaters for thermal power plants
  • Air preheaters for thermal power plants
  • Feedwater pumps for thermal power plants
  • Control systems for power plants
  • Maintenance and repair services for power plants

EMS Power Machines is committed to providing its customers with high-quality products and services. The company has a strong reputation for reliability and innovation. Power Machines is a leading provider of power equipment and services, and it plays a vital role in the global power industry.

EMS Power Machines, which began in 1961 as a small factory of electric motors, has become a leading global supplier of electronic products for different segments. The search for excellence has resulted in the diversification of the business, adding to the electric motors products which provide from power generation to more efficient means of use.

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